Since the past convention, years science and technology have a significant contribution significantly contributing to making education easier for humanity, through its vast range of techniques and developments of many instruments, thanks to its countless and innovative inventions. Microscopes are one of those innovations and are one of the specially designed optical instruments used to produce augmented images of objects or specimens that you can not see through the average human eye can’t be seen through naked eyes. They produce magnified visuals of small objects that allow the observer to see minute structures that help of great assistance for examination and analysis. The history of microscope remarks late 16th century when several Dutch scientists framed devices that magnified objects, but in 1609, a renowned scientist accomplished the first device transformed the same device in the form of a microscope.
Microscopes play an essential role in our educational system, most probably in schools and colleges, for studying the structures of different species and insects. Or analyze the division of cells or bacteria. Microscopes may vary in sizes and types according to their usage and depth of field for which the observer required for the experiments. As required by the observer for experiments.
Let us go through the brief anatomy of a simple microscope which is usually comprised of starting from the bottom the following components; there lies a base with a good light source and a diaphragm connected with the specimen stage—objective lenses, which are placed on the Nose piece. The nose piece works as a head that holds an Eyepiece lens and a drawtube to examine the specimen. Light source totally depends upon the objective lenses and an eyepiece because they play a vital role in enhancing the total magnification of an object.
Types of Microscope
The most commonly used microscopes are the light microscopes containing a source of light that is built-in; they are low in prices as compared to those which are more expensive; they are comparatively affordable and can be used in scientific applications such as; electron or ultraviolet scopes, for a variety of scientific applications and observation.
In order to purchase a portable microscope, one should focus on the fact that the instrument must be applied according to the application; the chosen microscope must fulfill the specifications and features required to carry out a certain task. Therefore, the primary key points before buying a microscope are listed as under:
The Right light microscope
As mentioned above, this type refers to a system subsisting containing two light sources generating from the objective lens and eyepiece lenses. The total magnification depends on these two original two lenses; they are labeled as primary and secondary sources, and the exact image of the object can only be achieved by multiplying the power of these two lenses. Microscopes are divided into two basic categories that are compound microscopes and stereo microscopes.
Compound microscopes are more reluctant encouraged when they are being used for viewing smaller specimens such as samples of blood and bacteria because For these specimens need high power of magnification in order to catch a clear and detailed image. And for this purpose, due to such functionality, they are also known as high-power microscopes. They are constructed equipped with 3-5 Objective lenses that range from 4x-100x, combining with 10x eyepieces making the magnification more potent up to 1000 times. Now compound microscopes are again divided into three types that are
Monocular microscopes, binocular microscopes, and trinocular microscopes. There are four basic parameters based on which we can make the right decision. They are as follows;
- Magnification: Monocular microscopes work better as they offer up to 1000x total magnification, but higher magnification can be acquired by using binocular microscopes.
- Convenience: Most people use binocular microscopes more efficiently and effectively as compared to monocular. Convenient usage of microscopes signifies seamless observation of specimens and user-friendly controls. Most people find themselves satisfied using binocular microscopes in comparison to monocular units.
- Price: A monocular microscope is the least expensive type as compared to trinocular microscopes having the most expensive price tags.
- Application: Monoculars mostly do not have a mechanical stage which is vital for complicated applications, but binocular microscopes are comprised of the better mechanical stage
If we need a clear visualization with low magnification, then stereo microscopes are the best choice. Because they are used for samples that are large such as insects, bugs, specimens of rocks, leaves, and gems, etc., they are most useful in terms of biological aspect because when students examine the specimens, it provides a three-dimensional review of the sample with technicality, giving easy access to samples giving an intense exposure to small details of samples. They are also called low-power microscopes and can relate to student microscopes because as they are usually provided at educational institutions. Its magnification levels range ranges from 6.5x-45x.
Modern microscopes are designed in such a way that they have the ability to offer viewing and sharing of microscopic images via the internet between a group of people, a class, or a lecture hall. This digital microscope revolution enables the institution to reduce its findings expenditures and stream the images on projection screens, tablets, smartphones, and computers. These microscopes are much more valuable at times of natural disasters when doctors can share or email images with their colleagues from other countries for treatment. The latest invention has improved the study of microscopy and our capability to view it.
The quality of construction build quality of a microscope depends upon the material used in the microscope. A fine quality microscope has excellent optics, designs with an element of solid metal, high-quality prisms are used instead of low-quality mirrors, and a proper iris diaphragm is being placed and not the disk-like diaphragm, as a matter of fact, higher price associates with higher quality. This phenomenon partially makes a sensible approach because light microscopes’ finest quality tends to be expensive enough. German and Japanese microscope brands are well-known for their leading production.
On the other hand, there is a large number of companies that are manufacturing low-priced and low-quality microscopes using plastic and low-cost equipment, which are made up of account to poor quality, having less optical quality, and are more likely to break easily and quickly. The constancy of these microscopes is not good enough and total wastage of time and money.
Therefore, a vital thing to keep in mind to avoid the danger of purchasing such instruments is to buy these microscopes from a reputable microscope vendor having good experience in the market.
It indicates the proper lighting of the microscope illumination of the stage, which is a critically important part of a microscope and hence can not be ignored when making the right choice. The basic four types of illumination used in microscopes are,
Tungsten, fluorescent, halogen and LED.
It is the old primary method used for illuminating old, traditionally designed microscopes. They are hardly used in today’s time because of their non-standardized quality. They produce yellow light and make the bulb hot. They are still found in some used and new models of a microscope, especially those which are sold at inexpensive rates, so avoid buying these as their replacements are hard to find.
Fluorescent lighting refers to proper focused and stabilized white lighting as compared to incandescent (or tungsten) as mentioned above and works at a much cooler temperature. This kind of illumination is used by biological specialists and researchers. Fluorescent ring lights are also beneficial in providing additional light in most stereo microscopes where more light is required in observation. Fluorescent lighting is usually used in student microscopes.
Halogens Halogen lights were primarily used in medical and laboratory microscopes for high-quality magnification illumination and are rarely found in student microscopes. They provide white, bright light with the right concentration. They are usually build up with a dimmer functioning to decrease the amount of heat and adjust the light accordingly. These lights are usually provided along with a dimmer, enabling the user to adjust the heat and ultimately lighting accordingly. They are preferably designed for medical labs until the development of LEDs but are used in binocular microscopes for their brightness. They were originally designed for medical laboratories; however, they were swept by the invention of LEDs and are now used in binocular microscopes.
LED stands for “Light Emitting Diode, “providing a clear and bright white light with less power consumption. The bulb used in LED is long-lasting and can be used for an extended period. It is a reliable state light source with many advantages; for example, they are not sensitive to movement like tungsten and halogens, which means that it can be touched and adjusted accordingly.
LED is the latest emerging technology for illumination in optical microscopes. It has replaced halogens as an alternate and often includes rechargeable batteries for better portability.
Focus of Microscope
Now the most useful thing crucial factor to be noted while buying a microscope is to determine its focus. The ordinary student microscope is made up contains two main focuses, including Coarse focus and fine focus; they are further comprised of metal gears and a slip clutch.
- The coarse focus knob is usually present in every other modern microscope. The purpose of coarse focus is to show the rough focus of the specimen after finding it. If using two knobs, the focus will be larger. The coarse focus, however, is used to focus on the specimen by bringing the objective lenses closer or taking them away.
- Fine focus provides a practical focus needed to view the levels of the subject to be magnified with a light touch, and fine focus has the capability of executing that light touch. The fine focus aids in tuning the focus of an objective lens. It is deployed in all types of compound microscopes because stereoscopes do not need them due to low magnification power. You’d find the fine focus in nearly all types of microscopes except for stereo microscopes since they lack magnification power.
Manufacturers of Microscope
Are you looking for a reputable company to buy a reliable microscope? Here is the answer to your solution. Brands don’t get fame and recognition in inheritance; they earn it by producing products that don’t only fulfill the needs of customers but ensure to retain them. The same goes for microscopes; there are not many brands delivering high-quality, and performing microscopes, those who do are listed below.
The process of manufacturing a microscope is quite sophisticated when it comes to arranging every piece of equipment of the device with the best quality and technique. In this regard, many developed and more developed countries are trying their hand in the best production of the microscope according to the market’s demands. But only some of them have gathered attention and become well-known for their unique strength and innovation. As stated above, a number of brands hold the title of manufacturers, but only 13 of them are considered worthy. These brands not only manufacture but also sell microscopes. This phenomenon has its importance because with these companies, and you are going to get a higher quality of the product, supported by the manufacturer as well as the dealer.
The top significant manufacturers of the microscope are,
But the real problem arises when these brands do not provide any microscope parts to maintain, repair, or upgrade. What causes the avoidance of procuring locally microscopes is the unavailability of replacement parts. So, In that such case, replacement with the new product is the only option left for the customer; that’s why to handle such situations, one should avoid such brands that do not have a particular website of the manufacturer.
Microscopes are important instruments that have been in use in since past years. They acquire a special place in performing experiments and techniques. They require a dedicated place for observing the miniature universe and performing several experiments. Therefore, the demand for this instrument is always present in the market. Therefore, they are ever-demanded products in the market. The overall conclusion of the article states that the main key points should be kept on the frontline whenever there is a need to buy a microscope. Firstly the main aspect of a microscope includes the type of microscope which is fitted for our requirement; The foremost factor is to sort the type that fits your requirements. There are many choices in this regard; for example, Compound and stereo microscopes. Secondly, if you are buying any product, the quality of the product matters; the same is the case with microscopes; their quality should be well checked should be the secondary factor. Thirdly, the lighting of the microscope should also be acknowledged considered because all the experiments depend on this lighting, are dependent on lighting. And last but not least is are the brand manufacturers of the microscopes. They play a significant role because all the mechanisms of microscopes depend on the best quality, which is interlinked with the manufacturers.
Q1 : How powerful of a microscope is. Do we need to see bacteria? How powerful of a microscope do you need to see bacteria?
To understand the mechanism of the microscope, its power of magnification needs to be studied properly; therefore, in order to see bacteria swimming, you shall need a lens of 400x magnification. Although at 1000x magnification, bacteria can be seen with amazing details, due to high magnification, it will be difficult to keep the constant focus as the particles move.
Q2 : What microscope is used for viruses?
Viruses are smaller organisms than bacteria that need to be visualized with fair details and require massive magnification to be visualized. Hence, Electron microscopes are used to indicate the description for the observation and diagnosis of the virus. This study of viruses is called The observation of organisms through electron microscopes is called “Electron Microscopy.” which implements a technique by which direct observation of viruses can be achieved due to its scale resolution of nano power.